By the end of the 17th century, the Dutch were loosing their dominance in the European map trade and were being replaced by French, British, and German publishing firms. Displayed here is an example of an early 18th-century world map by the English map, atlas, and globe publisher John Senex.
Utilizing a double hemisphere projection, this map was not as highly ornamented as its Dutch predecessors. The marginal decorations have disappeared. In their place, Senex has included texts about tides, evaporation, and trade winds based on the investigations and theories of Isaac Newton and Edmond Halley. The only ornamentation was confined to the dedication cartouche, which was enclosed by four female figures representing the continents of Europe, America, Africa, and Asia.
In addition to the marginal texts, the map included two other types of scientific or thematic information. The Trade Winds were indicated by small directional arrows within the equatorial zone, and lines of magnetic variation were shown with curved lines. Despite the implications that this map was based on precise and accurate observations, it appears that the geographical information was not the latest and best. For example, California was still shown as an island, a cartographic myth that was initially challenged during the first decade of the 18th century.